Roman Legion vs Greek Phalanx: who would win?

Phalanx

Phalanx. Source: Wikimedia








The Greek and Roman warriors are remembered for their power, their strength and their ability to strategise. The epic battles between the two of them, as well as other parties and them, have most certainly changed history. But who would win in a battle between a Roman Legion and a Greek Phalanx? Keep reading to find out!


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Strategy

The Greek Phalanx typically acted as a single, dense mass, whereas the Romans split themselves into several “maniple” with gaps between them – usually 30-35 maniples per legion. They used a “three-line” system – the youngest warriors in the front (Hastati), the men in their prime in the middle (Principes), and the veterans at the back (Triarii). The Greeks’ heavy armour, coupled with this tendency towards dense formations, increased their staying power in the shoving matches. On the other hand, however, it made it harder for them to maneuver, especially on rough terrains, and they could only operate as a single giant unit. The Roman legions didn’t have those problems – the maniples were very flexible and while they weren’t as dense as the Phalanxes, the low number of people in maniples allowed for complex formations, making them more adaptable for various kinds of terrains. The three-line system allowed for additional flexibility – front-liners could be substituted by Principes in order to get some rest, for instance. They were also real professionals, led by a centurion – the soldiers were trained from a young age.

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What do you think?


  • MrSherlockGoal

    Greeks would win . Romans would have severe loses before even reach the Greeks for a single combat. Their legions would be weaken and could not keep the preferred formation and shape.

    • Thanks @MrSherlockGoal, good to hear another view on this!

  • Anthony Christopher Morey
  • deChelca

    I think with the Superior reach, the Greeks would have the upper hand in the beginning. But as the Romans got around to their flanks and rear, and eventually opened up slots in the front, it’s clear the Romans would win.

  • Nathan

    No need to wonder about this, as the Romans fought Greek and Macedonian phalanxes numerous times in actual history. The first time was against Pyrrhus of Epirus, from whom we get the term “Pyrrhic victory” for his first two battles with the Romans, which he won but at high cost. His third battle with them, at Beneventum in 275 BC, he was crushed. The Romans defeated Macedonian phalanx-based armies at Cynoscephalae (197 BC) and Pydna (168 BC), and a Seleucid phalanx at Magnesia (190 BC). They finished off the last bit of Greek independence at Corinth (146 BC), and then finished off their last phalanx-using challenger, Mithridates VI of Pontus, in a series of lopsided victories, despite his superior numbers, in three wars from 89 to 65 BC (Mithridates did win one battle). Overall, there is no question of the superiority of the legion over the phalanx…the phalanx only stood a chance on open, nicely level ground, with its flanks completely protected (Perseus of Macedon managed a few minor victories that way). In any other situation, the superior flexibility of the legions, and close-quarters capabilities of the legionaries, doomed the phalanx.

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